Investment Guide of Estonia (Part 2) 7. Environmental Law On past years Estonia has passed the environmental reform. Estonian objective was to access the European Union (EU) and thereby has committed to transpose the EU’s environmental acquis. Transformations are based on EU’s environmental legislation and principles of modern environmental law. Environmental permitsEnvironmental quality requirements establish the requirements for environmental components and maximum tolerances for source of pollution, such as noise level, vibration, radiation, and lees.Emission requirements are imposed to waste water and to vehicle exhaust gases.Technology requirements are mostly imposed in areas with obvious environmental risks, for example filtration and cleaning devices. Environmental permits may be segmented or integrated. Segmented permits will depend on which environmental elements will be affected. For example waste permits, water permits, atmosphere air pollution permits and etc. are issued. Segmented permits are issued in accordance with legal acts regulating the corresponding field of activity.Bases and procedure for issuing the integrated environmental permit is established in Pollution Prevention and Control Act (forced 01.05.2001).Integrated permit is required for the below-listed activities: production of electricity, energy, fuel and coke; refining of liquid and gaseous fuel and carbonisation of soli 節能燈具d fuel; production and processing of metals; processing of mineral materials; chemical industry; waste management; pulp, paper, textile industry and tanning; food industry; animal rearing; surface treatment and finishing using organic solvents; production of plywood and fibre board; production of carbon (hard-burnt coal) and electro graphite by means of incineration or graphitisation; disposal or recycling of animal carcasses and animal waste. Application of integrated permit should be submitted to local County Environmental Department. Application should contain the information specificated in Pollution Prevention and Control Act. Environmental authority’s decision to give out the environmental permit should be based on principles of prevention, assessment of environmental impact, best available techniques and legislative requirements. Environmental authority may refuse to issue the permit if the nature of activity does not enable to follow the environmental standards, is not accordance with law or false information is presented. The Pollution ChargeThe objective of establishing a pollution charge is to prevent and reduce possible damage caused by the release of pollutants or waste into the environment. The pollution charge shall be paid for the release of pollutants and waste specified in Pollution Charge Act in 裝潢to the environment. The pollution charge is not imposed if pollutants or waste are released into the environment: in quantities or in a manner for which a permit is not required; due to force majeure; to prevent pollution on an even larger scale or an accident which may cause loss of life. The owner of an immovable shall pay the pollution charge if pollutants or waste are released into the environment from the immovable of the owner according to the wishes of the owner. If the owner of the structure releases pollutants or waste into the environment from land used on the basis of a right of superficies by a superficiary or from land adjacent to a structure as a movable, the obligation to pay the pollution charge shall also apply to such superficiary or owner. 1. Foreign Direct Investment Sound and liberal economic policies and excellent business climate has ensured a continuous growth of foreign direct investment (FDI) into Estonia. During the last 15 years Estonia has been one of the leading countries in Central and Eastern Europe in terms of inward investment per capita. Numerous foreign companies have found Estonia to be a highly attractive location. Companies partly or wholly owned by foreigners account for one-third of Estonian GDP and over 50 percent of the country’s exports. FDI by Activities and Countries By the end of 2006, the cu 九份民宿mulative stock of foreign direct investment in Estonia amounted to EUR 12.39 billion. 45.5 percent of those FDI has been invested in financial intermediation, followed by manufacturing (14.0 percent) and real estate, renting and business activities (13.2 percent). The Scandinavian countries are the biggest source of foreign direct investment in Estonia. Sweden tops the list of investing countries with 51.4 percent of the total, followed by Finland with 21.2 percent and the UK with 3.1 percent. 2. Labour Market Average monthly gross salary by job families, 2006 (EUR) Tallinn Other regions Engineering (management) 1 600 - 2 200 1 300 - 1 900 Engineering (technology and processes) 700 - 1 200 500 - 1 000 Engineering (equipment) 700 - 1 000 500 - 1 000 IT - Software Programmers 700 - 1 800 Secretaries 400 - 700 Blue collar workers 400 - 500 300 - 400 Source: Fontes, Estonian Salary Survey 2005 3. Real Estate Market Purchase and Leasing of Property by Foreign Citizens or Foreign Companies Foreign citizens and foreign companies may purchase any property (apartments, houses or buildings) without restrictions. Foreign companies and individuals also have the first option to buying the land under the buildings they have acquired. Office, Retail and Industrial Pr 土地買賣emisesThere are no restrictions for the lease of buildings and rooms. Nor are there any procedural peculiarities. Rents are usually fixed and not indexed, therefore the term of lease is relatively short. Costs for electricity, heating, etc are customarily excluded from rent and have to be paid by the lessee.Indicative range for rents in major towns of Estonia, class A and B premises (EUR/m2 per month) Type of Space Tallinn Tartu Parnu Narva Office 10 - 15 4.5 - 12 5.1 - 10 3.2 – 8.3 Retail 8 - 45 5 - 32 5 - 16 6.3 – 19 Industrial 2 - 6.5 0,6 - 3 0,6 - 3.8 1 – 4.5 Source: Arco Vara, Tallinn 2006 Example: operating costs in Tallinn For private consumer For industrial consumer Electricity 0,056 – 0,096 EUR/kWh 0.035-0.066 EUR/kWh + ampere based fee EUR 0.2/A/month Gas 0.19 - 0.3 EUR/m3 0.14 EUR/m3 Water 0.8 EUR/m3 1.98 EUR/m3 Wastewater 0.66 EUR/m3 1.45 - 3.1 EUR/m3 Source: Eesti Energia, Eesti Gaas, Tallina Vesi* VAT included Industrial ParksThe recent trend in industrial property market are industrial parks. There is less and less industry in central city of Tallinn, manufacturing companies and factories are moving to the more suitable locations in outskirts or even farther.Tallinn and its immediate vicinity have three areas under development 土地買賣for manufacturing facilities and warehouses: Peterburi road, Parnu road in Laagri and Tartu road between the city boundary and Juri. The biggest industrial parks in and around Tallinn are Juri Industrial Park, Tanassilma Technological Village, Dvigatel Industrial Park, Keila Industrial Park and Lasnamae Industrial Park. The total areas of the parks vary from 30 to 80 hectares and companies can purchase grounds with areas from 2000 up to 23 000 square meters with purchase price around 25-35 EUR per square meter.Besides Tallinn also Tapa Industrial Park, Parnu Production Park and Tartu Science Park are the most promising projects. 4. Telecommunications & IT DevelopmentSignificant developments have taken place in Estonia in terms of telecommunication infrastructure, leading Estonia to be the most advanced of the CEE countries. Key points in IT & Telecom development in Estonia: e-Tax Board- Income Tax Statements can be filled out via Internet (since Spring 2001) 60% of population are using Internet and 80% Internet banking (Summer 2006) the Government is using web-based document system (since August 2000) all Estonian schools are connected to the Internet, as a result of state-run “Tiger Leap” program over 800 Public Internet Access Points there are 855 free wireless Internet zones around the country (Autumn 2006) e-billing (July 2000) mobile parking project (July 1, 2000) w 房屋買賣orld`s first MPS project for society (May 3, 2000) digital Signature Act came into force (December 2000) IT College (September 2000) ID card - new primary domestic identification document (January 2002) Look @ World project - the % of Internet users in Estonia should increase to over 90% (2001) Telephone, mobile communication and Internet In Estonia among 100 inhabitants there are 108.75 mobile phone subscribers and 51.92 Internet users. Internet banking services have experienced rapid growth. By the end of August 2006 there were over 1.3 Million Internet bank customers in Estonia. Internet banking has become a common channel through which a citizen performs cash transfers, pays taxes, pays for services, communicates with the tax board, etc. A wide range of services as Internet dial-up, ISDN, ADSL, WiFi or permanent and cable connections are offered. Percentage of users of ADSL is nearly twice as big as in Sweden. 13. Transportation Due to its favourable economic and geographical position, Estonia has become a transit gateway for east-west as well as north-south trade. Its location is ideal for the creation of efficient transportation links and distribution chains of goods and services for companies in Europe and in other parts of the world. Road Network The Estonian road network is comparable to that of the Nordic countries in terms of its density and quality. The infrastructure along the m 小額信貸ain highways has improved fast as modern gas stations and better roads have been built. The major road transport passages through the country are Tallinn-Narva (Russian boarder), Tallinn-Tartu-Russian boarder and Tallinn-Parnu-Latvian boarder. Rail System The total length of the Estonian railway lines in is 1200 km. 133 km is electrified. All bigger towns and centres are united through the railway network, which covers the whole mainland part of Estonia. This creates good prerequisites for the development both for passenger and freight transport on railway. So far, the percentage of the passenger transport by railway has been relatively small, but in the past few years it has shown some stable tendency of growth. Sea TransportThere are 64 ports along the coast of Estonia, 31 of them handle commercial shipping and are open to vessels from other countries. Port of Tallinn is one of the fastest developing ports in the Baltic Sea and an authority managing five harbours: - Muuga Harbour - main oil, dry bulk and container port in Estonia, max depth 18 m, ice-free- Old City Harbour - main passenger port in Estonia, max depth 10.7 m- Paldiski South Harbour - scrap metal, timber and roro port, max depth 13 m - Paljassaare Harbour - timber, oil, coal max depth 9 m- Saaremaa Harbour – passenger port Other Estonian seaports are Kunda (timber, cement), Sillamae (timber, metals, oil products),AS Parnu Sadam (timber, peat) and Paldisk 吳哥窟i Pohjasadam (timber, vehicles, containers Passenger traffic from Estonia to Finland, Sweden and Germany is organised by several companies and the amount of connections per day is increasing year by year. Air TransportTallinn International Airport, renovated in 1999 is open to international and domestic flights. International air links with most Scandinavian and European cities have been established. International flight companies such as SAS, Finnair, Lufthansa, EasyJet, etc are operating through Tallinn Airport. The Estonian national flight company Estonian Air operates five Boeing 737 and, from mid-2007, two SAAB 340. In 2006, Tallinn Airport handled 1,54 million passengers (+10% to last year) and 10 361 tons of cargo (+4,3%). It is possible to fly from Tallinn directly to 24 destinations. Estonian Air Cargo represents big European air cargo companies like Air France Cargo and Finnair Cargo. Direct flights by order from Tallinn to Norway, Denmark, England, France, Hungary, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Germany, Austria, the CIS countries, North Africa and other countries are offered by small private air companies. 14.Operating costs Operating costs include tariffs of electricity, gas, water and sewage, fixed line communications, mobile phone communications and data communications. Electricity and Gas Tariffs in Estonia For private consumers For industrial consumers Electricity 0,06 – 0,10 EUR/kWh + network 買屋網fees 0,03-0,10 EUR/kWh + network fees Gas 0.28 – 0.53 EUR/m3 price agreed Source: Eesti Energia, Eesti Gaas; VAT included Water and Sewage Tariffs in Estonia (EUR/m3) Narva Parnu Tallinn Private consumers Industrial consumers Private consumers Industrial consumers Private consumers Industrial consumers Water 0,33 0,83 0,67 0,67 0,91 2,2 Wastewater 0,46 0,98 0,98 0,98 0,73 1,6-3,4 Source: Narva, Parnu and Tallinn water companies; VAT included Fixed Line Telephone Tariffs (EUR/min): Elion Ettevotted Tele2 Elisa Call starting fee 0.03 (EUR) 0.03 (EUR) 0.03 (EUR) Ordinary calls 0,01-0,02 0,01-0,02 0,01-0,02 Calls to mobile 0,17-0,25 0,16-0,21 0,16-0,25 Calls to Sweden 0,06-0,22 0,05-0,19 0,06-0,19 Calls to Finland 0,06-0,22 0,05-0,19 0,06-0,15 Calls to the UK 0,12-0,32 0,10-0,26 0,13-0,27 VAT included 15.Main Industries in Estonia Wood processing Chemical industry Machine building and Metalworking industry Construction industry Construction materials Financial services Electronics industry Transport & logistics Biotechnology Call centres Food industry .msgcontent .wsharing ul li { text-indent: 0; } 分享 Facebook Plurk YAHOO! 酒店經紀  .
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